Inadequate barter system in international trade

Other Names:
Underutilization of non-monetary foreign exchange

Barter, or countertrade as it has come to be known, is the oldest form of human commerce. It is growing worldwide. Shortages of hard currency, complex and sever exchange restrictions, the debt crisis, weak commodities prices, the collapse of the oil market -- all of these factors have contributed. In 1973 only 15 countries bartered regularly. Now 88 do so. Since barter is subject to much less regulation than monetary trade, no one knows for sure what proportion of global trade takes place in kind. Some experts estimate that the proportion could be as high as 30%. The revival of bartering is seen as a disaster by those who seek to promote free monetary trade. It is a declaration that the system is unviable. The World Bank opposes countertrade because it can deprive Third World nations of the cash and capital resources they need for development. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) sees it as a major factor in the universal trend toward protectionism, in part because a countertrade deal can force one of its participants to accept goods it would not otherwise buy.


Since 1983, anyone selling more than $500,000 in goods to Indonesia is legally obligated to accept Indonesian products in payment. Ecuador, Malaysia, Thailand, Mexico, Brazil and South Africa strongly encourage such deals. The former USSR and Eastern bloc nations would not at that time buy foreign products unless the buyer took bloc goods as at least partial payment. Nigeria's bartering of its excess oil in recent years of declining oil prices has kept the economy from collapse. At the same time, however, it has made a sham of OPEC's ability to negotiate world oil prices.

Reduced By:
Related UN Sustainable Development Goals:
GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic GrowthGOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production
Problem Type:
E: Emanations of other problems
Date of last update
04.10.2020 – 22:48 CEST