The use of news media and the press to disseminate information with intent to influence public opinion may include: government and official information; unrelated and misleading information; war, racist or religious propaganda; and writing from the underground and student press. Propaganda in the press may also include the use of cartoons and photographs. Newspaper and journal propaganda heightens international and domestic political conflict and may induce counterpropaganda, the confiscation of material felt to be subversive, imprisonment of those found with it in their possession or distributing it, and import restrictions on propagandist publications. There may be a conflict of information. Foreign influence or other subversive influence may induce ideological deviation, political unrest or revolution. Domestic political propaganda may result in the apathy and ignorance of the population.
Newspaper and journal propaganda is one of the most widely used means of indoctrination.