In the UK, concern has been expressed at a north-south divide in science and technology capability, with government policy favouring the south-east at the expense of the northern and regional universities. It was argued that high-tech industry favoured areas with a well-developed scientific and academic infrastructure, and so it was all the more important to maintain strong university science departments in the UK's economically depressed regions.
In most developing countries, the number of scientists and engineers per 10,000 population in the 1970s was below 50 and that of technicians below 250. In market developed countries and in the centrally planned economies the comparable ranges were 100-3000 for scientists and engineers and 250-1,000 for technicians. That developing countries accounted for about 12% of the research and development manpower and only 3% of the spending indicates also a much lower spending per researcher.
The development of global science programmes in subjects such as oceanography, ozone depletion, global warming and seismology require inputs of data from scientists all over the world.