Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland associated with urinary symptoms (similar to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)), sexual dysfunction and chronic pain in the pelvic region. A single infectious agent, such as E. coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas or Staphylococcus aureusis, typically the cause of acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis, which comprise 5 to 10 percent of prostatitis cases. The remaining 90 to 95 percent of prostatitis cases do not show signs of obvious infection and are referred to as "nonbacterial prostatitis", “chronic prostatitis” or “chronic pelvic pain syndrome".
A growing body of scientific literature indicates that a handful of underlying factors contribute to the pathology of CP/CPPS. These include: (1) Disrupted, less diverse, gut microbiome; (2) Disrupted urinary and seminal microbiomes (dysbiosis of the male reproductive and urinary tracts), often by multiple (and often unnecessary) rounds of antibiotics; (3) Infection by bacteria, which may serve as an initial stimulus for CP/CPPS; (4) HPA axis dysfunction (regulating the body’s response to stress) and low testosterone; (5) Environmental toxin exposure from pesticides and endocrine-disruptors; (6) Inflammation and oxidative stress; (7) Autoimmunity.
Chronic prostatitis (CP) or chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is notorious for being the most difficult type of prostatitis to live with. CP/CPPS is a syndrome with a wide array of physical and psychological symptoms including pelvic pain, straining during urination, frequent urination, painful ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. It is also linked to several co-morbid disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome, depression, and anxiety. CP/CPPS currently affects 10 to 15 percent of men and significantly reduces quality of life. Due to its complex nature, CP/CPPS is difficult to treat and often does not respond to conventional medical interventions.