In industrialized countries, there are a growing number of commercial enterprises, self-help residents groups, and crime-watch firms which focus on providing personal and property security, crime-prevention and self-defence outside of the public law enforcement services. One problem is that they may use tactics which themselves result in criminal behaviour or are out of proportion to the offence.
There are several instances of small shopkeepers in large cities shooting burglars. A British man was acquitted of the murder of a man he pursued and fought, who was slashing his car tyres. Certain private firms in the UK have been infringing private property law in clamping and fining "illegally" parked cars.