The clash of civilizations is occurring and will occur at two levels. At the micro-level, adjacent groups along the fault lines between civilizations struggle, often violently, for the control of territory and each other. At the macro-level, states from different civilizations compete for relative military and economic power, struggle over the control of international institutions and third parties, and competitively promote their particular political and religious values. The most important conflicts of the future will occur along the cultural fault lines separating civilizations.
Different cultural identities and types of civilization are not only a basic product of centuries of human history but also over the centuries have generated the most prolonged and violent conflicts. Present political and economic conflicts are mostly due to clashes of an ethnic, religious or cultural kind.
The clashes between civilizations are replacing the political and ideological boundaries of the Cold War as the flash points for crisis and bloodshed. Situations foreseen include: confrontations between the Judaeo-Christian civilizations and those of Muslim heritage; confrontations between Slavs and Turks and between Muslims and Hindus; emergence of various forms of ethnic cleansing in all regions.