Some parents may choose to punish their children by physically hitting them, either with the hand or with a cane, strap, or other implement. There is no evidence that such physical punishment has a positive effect on the child's behaviour. On the contrary, it is a form of assault from which adults are legally protected but children are not.
A UK childminder was refused re-registration after resisting the professional guidelines which prohibit slapping, smacking or shaking of children in care.
A 1995 US survey of parents claimed that 65% had spanked their child. Half the parents agreed with the statement that it is sometimes necessary to discipline a child with 'a good hard spanking'.