Chilblains (also known as pernio) are itchy or tender red lumps on extremities of the body: fingers, toes, ears and nose. They occur after exposure to cold.
While children and the elderly are most commonly affected, other age groups are not immune to this problem. Chilblains are more common in people with a family history of susceptibility and those who have problems with their blood circulation. Smoking, diabetes and high cholesterol can lead to poorer blood circulation. People who are underweight or have diseases that affect connective tissue (such as lupus) are also at increased risk of chilblains.