Covert trade in nuclear weapons Violation of international controls on export of weapons technology Inadequate control of munitions exports
There are no regimes for controlling exports of munitions, much less the sale of advanced conventional weaponry, such as cluster bombs, precision-guided munitions and cruise missiles.
Despite agreements (notably the Missile Technology Control Regime) against the transfer of high technology to irresponsible countries, during the Reagan and Bush administrations countries such as Iraq, Iran and Syria were the forbidden recipients of US-made weapons. The USA administration circumvented the law with covert transfers, usually via friendly countries such as Saudi Arabia.
The key to security is not in trying to control the transfers of destructive technology and weapons as in trying to control their use. We know that two conditions for medium-term security are stable government and economic incentives. Better to some international mechanism for eliminating crackpot dictators and their syncophants; better to educate and train a target country in economic self-interest and how to further it, then to get that country economically dependent on the major trading blocs and justly fearful of ostracism from them.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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