Reaction of a mammal to a given noxious agent is an inheritable property and there are known substantial differences even among particular strains of the same species. One example is the existence of different strains of mice especially raised to be particularly (and uniformly) sensitive to insults by certain chemicals. Another example is the existence of certain tumours that are common with some animals and unknown in others. Such is the case with thymic lymphoma: very common in certain mouse strains, but apparently with no real analogue in humans. Reverse situations undoubtedly exist. The inference is that the predictive value for human hazard varies for different animal experiments. Although the discovery of any toxic effect points to the need for close medical supervision of exposed persons in order to detect similar changes in man at an early stage, accurate quantitative extrapolation to man of the results of animal experiments is not feasible.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.