Wherever sites are developed, the soil, plant and animal environment is invaded. Land erosion can be caused by neglect or lack of understanding of soil characteristics and grading techniques.
Development of sites increases runoff in streams in two ways. First, the amount of impervious area (roof tops, driveways, roadways, parking lots, etc.) is increased, preventing rainfall from infiltrating the ground, and resulting in direct runoff and increased surface flow. Secondly, storm sewers, gutters and so forth increase the efficiency and the speed of the runoff. This higher runoff produces greater stream discharge and velocity, and higher erosion force, creating an imbalance between the force of the stream and the ability of its own banks to contain it. It takes several years for a new balance to be developed. During this time of transition, other erosion problems can occur.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.