Coffee is attacked by over 300 diseases and a number of insects. In certain areas the coffee industry is no longer viable because of pests, and in all other areas pests represent a serious threat to yields.
The coffee-bean borer (referred to in Brazil as the 'coffee plague'), coffee 'leaf-miner', and Mediterranean fruit fly are the most common insect pests. Of these, the 'leaf-miner' is the most serious pest in many Latin American countries, causing up to 50% loss in plant efficiency. Of the many diseases, by far the most destructive is Hemileia vastatrix, a fungal leaf rust which causes spectacular defoliation and crop failure.