Deterioration in public water supply systems Inadequate maintenance of urban water systems Failure to maintain sewage systems Deficient municipal water lines Leakage from city water supply systems Water leaks in cities
Because of low revenues and spiralling costs of purifying water for urban areas -- increasingly from lakes and reservoirs polluted by urban discharges and runoff -- local authorities may often neglect the maintenance of their water distribution systems, and delay repair or extension of systems into peri-urban areas outside the traditional distribution network. This can compound the possibility for water pollution and also contribute to cross-contamination of potable water supplies by wastewater or sewage.
In 1996 it was estimated that nearly half the water supplied to cities is lost because of leakage and wastage, often the result of neglect and profligacy. 'Unaccounted-for-water' in Nairobi, Kenya is estimated to be enough to supply all of Mombasa, Kenya's second largest city.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.