Pacifism encourages individuals and groups to refuse to take up arms to defend their country (or an ally) against aggression. As such it weakens the ability of the country to defend itself and therefore threatens the security of the country or the alliance to which it belongs.
Collective pacifism may take the form of national neutrality with the expressed denunciation of any form of war. Personal pacifism is an expression of conscience or conviction that one cannot participate in any military conflict. Individuals may advocate pacifism as a policy for a nation, but in the event of actual war, serve in their country's military forces or otherwise voluntarily support their nation's war effort. Pacifism in its collective and personal forms is obviously interrelated, but at the same time subject to widely divergent characteristics. Some pacifists claim the title 'activists'. Others speak approvingly of passive non-resistance. Expressions of pacifism, therefore, run a broad range. Pacifists are frequently the object of rhetorical, and some times of physical attacks; accused of being traitors, and reviled and discriminated against in other ways.