Crisis escalation is the process whereby each side in turn increases the scope of an international crisis or the violence of an international conflict in the hope that its adversary's self-imposed limits will be reached before its own.
President Kennedy, during the 1962 Cuban missile crisis, deliberately escalated the crisis to the point where any further escalation exceeded the self-imposed limits of the former Soviet Union; and his administration also developed an explicit doctrine of controlled escalation to give credibility to the posture of the USA of extended deterrence in western Europe. The USSR then embraced a similar policy regarding the relation to a NATO attack on Warsaw Pact countries. President Reagan's Strategic Defence Initiative was also an example of crisis escalation.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.