Inadequate patent coverage Inadequate patent control Inadequate patent extension Difficulty of patent application Avoidance of patent restrictions
Patents provide ownership rights to ways of doing things. Lack of coordination in national practices for awarding patents may result in discrimination against foreign patent applications; and may also cause infringement, in whole or in part, of existing inventions because of the unmanageable problem of document search.
A controversial patent was given to an American for observing that a hormone that is already checked during pregnancy tests has a previously unknown significance. This information is diagnostically important and commercially potentially rewarding. The patentholder did not invent the natural functioning of this hormone; therefore it is claimed that the patent was wrongly awarded.
Patents, which represent the rights of inventors to dictate the use and distribution of their inventions, are actually little more than restrictive monopolies of private interest, which distort economic choices, hinder industrial growth, and are open to widespread abuse. Since every invention is based upon the evolution of wider knowledge within the society, why should one individual or company have exclusive control over the utilization of the invention.
There would be very little incentive for anyone or any company to invest in research if there were no safeguards on that person or company having exclusive rights to use the results of that research, even for a restricted length of time. The abuse of unscrupulous commercialization of another's research would be far greater than the present so-called abuse of the patent system.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.