Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral disease. Symptoms of CCHF may include fever, muscle pains, headache, vomiting, diarrhea, and bleeding into the skin. Onset of symptoms is less than two weeks following exposure. Complications may include liver failure. In those who survive, recovery generally occurs around two weeks after onset.
The CCHF virus is typically spread by tick bites or contact with livestock carrying the disease. Those affected are often farmers or work in slaughterhouses. The virus can also spread between people via body fluids. Diagnosis is by detecting antibodies, the virus's RNA, or the virus itself. It is a type of viral hemorrhagic fever.
Prevention involves avoiding tick bites. A vaccine is not commercially available. Treatment is typically with supportive care. The medication ribavirin may also help.
It occurs in Africa, the Balkans, the Middle East, and Asia. Often it occurs in outbreaks. In 2013 Iran, Russia, Turkey, and Uzbekistan documented more than fifty cases. The risk of death among those affected is between 10 and 40%. It was first detected in the 1940s.