Animal diseases may be transmitted by wild birds which have eaten from infected carcasses, and which provide a complicating factor in the control of the disease, as in the case of anthrax. Anthrax is transmitted from birds having eaten from infected carcasses to trees and other plant life which provide fodder for susceptible animals. Parasitic and fungal animal diseases can be transmitted by birds to domestic poultry or other animals. Most birds support sizeable groups of parasites, and while wild birds may develop a certain immunity to the diseases caused by them, domestic poultry reared in artificial conditions are more susceptible to epidemics. Wild birds also usually support parasitic fungi, but to a lesser extent than they do parasitic insects. Parasitic insects include ticks, mites, lice, flies, intestinal worms, roundworms (filaria) and protozoa, which may be present in vast quantities.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.