Establishment of special broadcasting stations beaming propaganda programmes to a selected audience by a government or a political organization on a non-attributable basis. Often the pretence may be sustained that the station is operated inside enemy territory by a dissident group when in fact it operates from the sender's own or a neutral territory.
Considerable use of such stations was made during World War II by the Nazis in order to undermine morale in the UK. The UK responded via a 'Radio Luxembourg' and then made extensive use of such techniques through a Political Warfare Executive. Following the war, the USSR made much use of such techniques claiming the broadcasts were from the countries to which they were directed (France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Greece, Turkey and the Middle East). Currently extensive use is made of them between Third World countries, notably in the Middle East.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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