Establishment of special broadcasting stations beaming propaganda programmes to a selected audience by a government or a political organization on a non-attributable basis. Often the pretence may be sustained that the station is operated inside enemy territory by a dissident group when in fact it operates from the sender's own or a neutral territory.
Considerable use of such stations was made during World War II by the Nazis in order to undermine morale in the UK. The UK responded via a 'Radio Luxembourg' and then made extensive use of such techniques through a Political Warfare Executive. Following the war, the USSR made much use of such techniques claiming the broadcasts were from the countries to which they were directed (France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Greece, Turkey and the Middle East). Currently extensive use is made of them between Third World countries, notably in the Middle East.