Job dissatisfaction varies from one individual to another but some professions and working environments particularly in industrial society, do organize work in such a way that it becomes meaningless, boring or stultifying. Alienating and dehumanizing work is associated with modern highly-mechanized methods of production and decision-making structures. A survey carried out in the USA showed that, if they could start again, 93% of university professors would try to get into similar work. The corresponding figure for car workers, the least satisfied group, was 16%. In the auto industry, for example, the absence rate on Mondays and Fridays is staggering - 15 to 20%. There is also evidence of massive alcoholism under such circumstances.
In 1999 in the European Union, just over a third of those who had jobs were satisfied with them. Nearly half of them, and more women than men, would have liked to work shorter hours, while just one in 10 would have liked to work more, with men outnumbering women in this case.