Agricultural overproduction

Experimental visualization of narrower problems
Other Names:
Agricultural surpluses
Overproduction of food
Excessive agricultural production

In some parts of the world (or in some parts of the same country), too much food is grown. Such overproduction is expensive economically and ecologically. Heavily subsidized surpluses depress international market prices of commodities and thus create severe problems for developing countries whose economies are based on agriculture. They also tend to reduce the incentives for domestic food production. Subsidized disposal of the surpluses (often as food aid) depresses markets for commodities such as rice and sugar, and undermines the economies of the developing countries that depend on them.

Grain production, trade and consumption trends, and the appraisal of factors underlying them, indicate that surpluses, or the persistence of production in excess of effective demand, may now be considered a chronic feature of the world grain economy. The heart of the problem lies in the level of price or income guarantees to producers of wheat and other grains in many exporting as well as importing countries. These guarantees, combined with other aspects of national agricultural policies (if maintained substantially unchanged) will continue, together with technological advance, to stimulate an output larger than can be absorbed by effective demand. Independent measures of surplus disposal may therefore assume a semi-permanent character and affect an increasing part of the international trade in grains, thus adding to the marketing difficulties being experienced by exporting countries.


Overproduction and its attendant environmental and economic ills are greatest in North America and Europe. In 1985 it was estimated that the EEC/EU spends $ 1,000 million per year on storage of agricultural surpluses. In 1993 Europe had a 20 million tonne grain surplus. The cost of public storage of surplus food in the EEC/EU was then estimated to be £3.6 billion in 1992.

In the 1970s the USA deliberately reversed longstanding policy that favoured conservation practices such as fence rows, windbreaks, crop rotation and fallow land. Farmers were advised to plough fence row to fence row and blanket the grasslands with wheat and corn. The extra capacity produced surpluses and lower prices at the same time as farmers were shouldering enormous debt to finance expansion. The average annual federal subsidy to farmers from 1985 to 1995 was $14.9 billion. This was not the cost of maintaining productivity but of destroying it.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Trade Unions International of Agriculture, Food, Commerce, Textile and Allied Industries
International Organisation of Agro-Industrial Trade Unions
Joint Secretariat of Agricultural Trade Associations
Alliance for Commodity Trade in Eastern and Southern Africa (ACTESA)
Committee of Cereals, Oilseeds, Animal Feed, Olive Oil, Oils and Fats and Agro-Supply Trade in the EU (COCERAL)
European Liaison Committee for Agricultural and Agri-Food Trades
European Federation of Food, Agriculture and Tourism Trade Unions (EFFAT)
Organic Trade Association (OTA)
Regional Agricultural Trade Intelligence Network (RATIN)
Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP)
International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium (IATRC)
Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (CTI-CFF)
Global Agriculture and Food Security Program (GAFSP)
International Network of Resource Centers on Urban Agriculture and Food Security (RUAF Foundation)
Joint Programming Initiative on Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change (FACCE-JPI)
People's Coalition on Food Sovereignty (PCFS)
Agri-Food Chain Coalition (AFCC)
Asian Food and Agriculture Cooperation Initiative (AFACI)
Caribbean Food Crops Society (CFCS)
European Society for Agricultural and Food Ethics (EurSafe)
International Food and Agribusiness Management Association (IFAMA)
International Society of Food, Agriculture and Environment (ISFAE)
Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network (FANRPAN)
International Liaison Committee for Food Crop Programmes
Nordic Joint Committee for Agricultural and Food Research
Global Information and Early Warning System on Food and Agriculture (GIEWS)
Global Panel on Agriculture and Food Systems for Nutrition (GLOPAN)
International Agri-Food Network (IAFN)
World Food Programme (WFP)
Sustainable, Innovative and United Agriculture and Food Network
Related UN Sustainable Development Goals:
GOAL 2: Zero HungerGOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production
Problem Type:
D: Detailed problems
Date of last update
04.10.2020 – 22:48 CEST