Income distribution at the international and national levels is closely bound up with the processes of exclusion, poverty and discrimination. Exclusion is a concept that according to many authors would appear to accompany the new stage of globalization.
A territorial exclusion occurs in the first place. Although there are parts of the world that are integrating into the new globalized situation, there are also many other regions and parts of the world that are excluded, that is, whose level of integration is decreasing in this new phase of world capitalist development. Secondly, the same process is occurring within each country, where regions that were formerly adequately integrated with the rest of society are being subjected by these new processes to a downward spiral towards exclusion. Thirdly, exclusion is occurring at the level of social groups discriminated against, especially for reasons of gender, ethnic origin or race. Within societies there are social groups that find themselves excluded and in which income differentiation implies a gradual disintegration of the ties by which they were bound to the rest of society. There are minority groups and indigenous peoples for whom the processes of globalization have led to severely accentuated phenomena of exclusion.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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