Government pardoning of convicted human rights offenders Arbitrary reduction of sentences for offenders after conviction Inadequate punishment of international criminals in their own countries Official amnesty for killers
In Argentina, for example, the government passed a series of decrees pardoning almost all those convicted as responsible for human rights abuses involving the forced disappearance of an estimated 15,000 people during the military dictatorship's operations in the 1970s and 1980s. Several Italian politicians accused in corruption scandals were pardoned in 1992 by emergency parliamentary decrees which decriminalized offences involving financing political parties with illegally-raised funds.
The wholesale pardoning of killers may churn stomachs, but an amnesty makes political sense. In the case of South Africa it helped secure a settlement. It is an important option in other regional conflicts.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.