Human resources development concerns increased emphasis within existing avenues, such as in-house training and research and development, broadening of skills of the workforce, development and assimilation of new technologies so as to maximize productivity. On the other hand, new avenues are needed to develop expertise for the new production opportunities and for the marketing of the resultant outputs. Human resources development is a necessary complement to the mobilization of additional investment finance for commodity-based development.
In many countries there is a lack of an effective private enterprise manpower policy applicable to the development of commodity extraction, conversion, manufacturing or service industries and to the agriculture and food-processing sectors. Also lacking is the provision for such a policy to be integrated into total manpower development and educational policy, in conjunction with national planning. The presence of migratory labour forces, skilled and unskilled, encourages minimum training for domestic labour and high turnover.
A serious shortage of qualified and technical personnel and certain special categories of labour threatens economic advance and also political stability. The inadequate supply of appropriate trained manpower - that is the right numbers, at the right time, in the right place, and with the right balance of technical knowledge and practical skills - impedes the pace and direction of industrial growth, industrial innovation and economic and social development.