Discrimination in the field of health, social security, old age pensions, etc, and in public places, on the grounds of race, colour, national or ethnic origin, creates disadvantages and lack of opportunities for all involved. Health service discrimination may occur in the quality of service given (if it is centralized), or unintentionally but effectively against racial groups in a lower income bracket if the system is mainly private. Some social security and pension schemes require eligibility standards which may exclude certain racial groups, especially if related to income or property. Legal systems frequently discriminate racially. Racial discrimination in public places may occur through a legalized system of segregation, such as apartheid, or through ghetto situations and inherent prejudice or traditionalism.
In many nations a disproportion of prisoners are of oppressed races, for example, in Australia, Aborigines make up less than 1.5% of the population but account for 14.8% of the prison population and 21% of all deaths in custody.