Infringement of foetal rights Prenatal child abuse Rights of embryos Gamete rights
Foetuses are helpless. They can be damaged by pollution of the environment of the womb (any substances which can cross with the blood through the placental barrier), radiation, and physical disturbance, such as shocks or amniocentesis. Careless parenting can also increase the risk to the foetus of carrying congenital deformations or diseases.
Children, conceived but not yet born, have the right to be protected against genetic experiments or engineering, cloning, creation of identical twins, the fusion of embryos, and research and experimentation on embryos, such as the determination of sex by genetic manipulation. Gamete cells (eggs and sperm) have the right to enjoy natural fertilization and not be used for the creation of foetuses from people of the same sex, or by the fusion of human gametes with those of other animal. A human embryo has the right to natural development within a human womb and not by forms of ectogenesis, or implantation in the uterus of another animal. Foetuses have the right to be conceived and born as normal humans, not as monsters or experimental Frankensteins.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.