Inadequate conditions of work and employment of public service personnel
Demotivated civil servants
Public administration personnel policies rarely compare in quality with those of the private or voluntary sectors. Employees are poorly trained and poorly rewarded. They perform accordingly. Civil servants are subjected to overcrowded offices, lack of appropriate working equipment, lack of proper residential accommodations, very low incomes with irregular pay increases, draconian codes of conduct and expenditure, poor health and welfare conditions. The results of such neglect are absenteeism, corruption and behaviour towards the public that is often obstructive. Further, many public administrations offer but rudimentary systems of labour relations.
The majority of developing countries have no procedure for the settlement of labour disputes on pay or working conditions. Strikes and industrial action, often the only negotiating tool available, are very often discouraged or forbidden in the public sector. Brazil, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Nepal, Pakistan and Thailand, as well as most Arab countries, forbid strikes. Several countries have suspended this right for several years as part of martial law. Individual resistance such as indiscipline, negligence and corruption become the only options available.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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