Refusal by the authorities, governmental or private, to grant licences to broadcasting stations, film or theatre clubs may serve the same function as censorship. Licences may be distributed as a matter of governmental policy (particularly with broadcasting) and may be issued in such a way as to support the administration. Alternatively, broadcasting licences may be distributed on the basis of commercial performance. The authorities may refuse to renew licences where broadcasting stations have not met their requirements. Films in many countries require a licence to be shown and this may be refused on the grounds of immorality or obscenity, and private film and theatre clubs may be closed on these grounds if they do not comply with the law. Refusal of licence for the media may result in cultural stagnation, indoctrination and conformism, may serve to strengthen government control or political dictatorship, or may give rise to a counter culture.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.