The social and cultural roles of western women have been destroyed by a number of factors. The process of urbanization isolated her from the extended family and removed her from the farm. Many of the roles such as midwife have been turned to professions. Her role as medium and healer has been eliminated by science. The long and bloody period of witch-burning resulted in the torture and murder of six to nine million wise women, left a deep mark of terror and eradicated untold knowledge among western women.