Threats to Arvicolidae include: Loss and fragmentation of habitats and the disturbance of riparian habitats. Predation by introduced species such as mink and the pollution of watercourses and poisoning by rodenticides.
The water vole Arvicola terrestris is found throughout Britain but is confined mainly to lowland areas near water. Once common and widespread, this species has suffered a significant decline in numbers and distribution. A national survey in 1989-90 failed to find signs of voles in 67% of sites where they were previously recorded and it is estimated that this will rise to 94% by the year 2000.