Avarice is the state of being in which an individual attaches such value to wealth and possessions that he makes the accumulation and retention of them the major goal of his life, to which he subordinates all else. It is not the normal human instinct to acquire, nor is it imposed by a materialistic society. It substitutes possessing for living. In the state of avarice the individual's life is so devoid of internal meaning that he creates personal significance with external things. It leads to a distorted view of reality and a narrowing of vision and imagination. Because it has no limit to its desire to do and to have, it disregards the property and rights of others. It involves a sense of ambition and purpose without limit. Such a perversion of values is totally disruptive of the moral life.
The development of society cannot be sustained unless people can appreciate the need to abandon social processes based on greed.
The aspirational gap has been created by structural changes-such as the decline of community and social connection, the intensification of inequality, the growing role of mass media, and heightened penalties for failing in the labor market. Upscaling is mainly defensive, and has both psychological and practical dimensions.