Distortion of international trade by discriminatory requirements with respect to product standards and measures
Barriers in the field of standards arise in cases where there is a significant divergence in the mandatory standards adopted in various countries as well as in cases where methods used for enforcement of such standards are unduly rigorous. Some developing countries are exposed to standards for electrical machinery and equipment involving difficulties to their exporters, particularly as the procedures adopted for prior testing and inspection are time-consuming and costly in some countries. They may also experience difficulties because of certain provisions in the technical regulations regarding product content, or processes used in the manufacture of enamel products, pencils, fruit juices, etc.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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