Disregard for internationally imposed economic sanctions
Circumvention of international sanctions Smuggling through sanctions barriers Violation of international export controls Breach of blockade
Unilateral and multilateral economic sanctions imposed since the end of World War I have had some limited successes but have proved virtually useless when wielded by one strong power against another. The successes were achieved mostly against small countries when only modest foreign policy goals were sought.
An example of sanctions with general lack of success were the USA efforts to halt the sale of grain and gas pipeline equipment to the former Soviet Union. In 1990, the German government was given a list of 50 German companies believed to be violating the United Nations embargo against Iraq. In 1993 it was alleged that corporations based in the USA were using lax law enforcement concerning sanctions to conduct business openly in Cuba and Libya through foreign subsidiaries.
Even when they do not do their intended job, sanctions can serve important political purposes, such as unifying world opinion concerning violations of internationally accepted behaviour; for example, the League of Nations' action when Italy invaded Ethiopia.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
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