It is useful to distinguish between (a) poor quality from the perspective of the producer and (b) the user. One author distinguishes between custom- designed or built products and mass-produced ones. Custom designed dams, software, ships, financial investments, consulting work, etc, are different because there is no clear difference between design, production and delivery. They all happen effectively at the same time.
One can also distinguish between (a) poor quality products (b) deterioration over time in the quality of products and (c) poor quality not just linked to products but also services, research, etc.
2. Quality assurance doesn't.