Unfair play in sport Violent play in sports Criminal involvement in sport Corruption of sporting competitions Bribery of sports officials Illegal practices by athletics coaches Abusive sports Discrimination in sport
During play itself, the rules of a sport may be abused to favour one player or team. This may include unsanctioned movements, violence to other players, intimidation of opponents, and concealment of such infringements from any referee. In preparation for the sport there are many methods of rendering its practice unfair. These may include use of drugs, bribery of players or the referee, intimidation and violence. Many such practices are used because of the money that can be made from sport, either through gambling, media rights or advertising sponsorship. Secret agreements may be made with many of those involved (whether players, referees, organizers, or sponsors) to ensure that one party wins or loses and that all benefit financially from such unfair practices. The opportunities in this respect have attracted considerable interest from organized crime.
Media publicity is regularly given to instances of bribery of players, teams, or referees. In the case of a sport like professional wrestling, it is widely accepted that the outcome is fixed in advance, even contractually. In relation to the Olympic Games, much attention has been given to the incidence of drug abuse, notably steroids. In preparation for the 1994 Winter Olympics, one ice skater was physically damaged by the former husband of another. The Olympic Games has also seen examples of concealment of sex by participants seeking to be classified as women.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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