A large part of female employment takes place at home in the agricultural and artisanal sectors in the Third World where the female, beside domestic duties, produces marketable goods which are sold by the males of the family. Domestic duties, largely unrecognized as economic activity, includes cooking, driving, cleaning, baby sitting, laundering and ironing. In the agricultural sectors, women plant, water, weed, harvest, process grains, preserve fruit and vegetables, and prepare animal products. In the artisanal sector, most of the output is actually provided by females at home. These include: pickles, home made sandwiches, pasties, pastries, sweets, desserts, home brewed beer, small loom textiles, rugs, towels, and tailored goods. The women who perform these jobs are, for the most part, unpaid, adding billions of dollars to the Gross National Product of every nation of the world.
The gap between men's and women's shares in household chores is still great. According to 1993 surveys, working women in Canada or in France still spend, on average, over four hours a day doing unpaid work at home, twice as much as men.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.