Problem

Underdevelopment of countries


Experimental visualization of narrower problems
Other Names:
Dependence on underdevelopment
Dependent development
Lack of development
Dependence on economic and social underdevelopment
Economic and social underdevelopment
Nature:
Underdevelopment occurs when some resources are not used to their full socio-economic potential, with the result that local or regional development is slower than it might be. As a system of self-reproducing hard-core poverty and stagnation, it is a complex system of mutually supporting internal and external factors that allow the less developed countries only a lop-sided development process. It hinges on the industrialized world's uneven economic conditions and the changes in the structure of the international division of labour since the Second World War; includes the division of the world into rich and poor countries as well as the disparities with in poor countries between their rich and poor inhabitants; and is convolutedly linked to the developing countries' deteriorating trade position.

The economic and social development of many developing countries is being held back by backward economies and social systems in which peasants and intermediate urban strata predominate. Almost all the developing countries suffer from large-scale hidden and partial unemployment exacerbated by an increase in population due to the decrease in child mortality. Their unequal trade situation stems from their dependence upon primary products (usually not more than three) for their export receipts. These commodities are often: in limited demand in the industrialized countries (for example: tea, coffee, sugar, cocoa, bananas); vulnerable to replacement by synthetic substitutes (jute, cotton, etc); or are experiencing shrinking demand with the evolution of new technologies that require smaller quantities of raw materials (as is the case with many metals). Prices cannot be raised as this simply hastens the use of replacement synthetics or alloys, nor can production be expanded as this rapidly depresses prices. Consequently, the primary commodities upon which most of the developing countries depend are subject to considerable short-term price fluctuation, rendering the foreign exchange receipts of the developing nations unstable and vulnerable. Development thus remains elusive.

Incidence:
Underdevelopment severely affects potential growth and stability for virtually all the world's developing countries (which include the majority of independent countries in Central and South America, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia; the main exceptions being South Africa, mainland China, Taiwan, and Israel). Most of these countries were colonies or semicolonies of the the imperialist powers or were dependent on them.
Claim:
As the industrialized countries continue to rely on their economic superiority and on their monopoly associations in the developing countries, they take advantage of the growing indebtedness of the underdeveloped nations (particularly as regards the scientific and technological advancements the underdeveloped countries are so eager to participate in) and try to keep them in a subordinate, underdeveloped position by strengthening the system of neo-colonialism.
Counter Claim:
The core problem is not the lack of development or stagnation, rather there has been too much development of an inappropriate kind.
Strategies:
Developing information technology
Developing environmental leadership
Promoting investment in developing countries
Applying science sustainably
Expanding trading opportunities for developing countries
Accelerating sustainable development in developing countries
Supporting technical cooperation among developing countries on poverty reduction
Increasing technical assistance to developing countries to design and operate efficient tax systems
Compensating developing countries for shortfalls in commodity export earnings
Developing nuclear methods in agriculture
Enhancing export supply capabilities of developing countries
Increasing income
Reforming domestic trade policy
Maintaining democratic political foundation
Providing adequate financial resources to developing countries
Improving efficiency of trade
Supporting developing country effort to provide shelter to the poor
Developing technical competence in dryland agriculture
Facilitating access of developing countries to pollution control knowledge and technologies
Developing codes of conduct for politicians
Developing water pollution control technologies
Developing sustainable agriculture in humid areas
Strengthening scientific and technological capacity
Promoting community self-determination
Developing pollution control technologies
Promoting sustainable development through world trade agreements
Developing efficient draught animal power
Increasing aid to developing countries
Organizing community space
Demonstrating modern farm technology
Developing home power supply
Restricting production in primary commodities in developing countries
Strengthening cooperation between developing countries
Developing corporate leadership roles
Developing grassroots political voice
Forging community-oriented curriculum
Developing agricultural devices
Developing better community markets
Developing community power access
Providing community services
Developing marketable tinned foods
Engaging in national development
Developing diversified wood production
Developing practical business leaders
Encouraging saving in developed countries
Cultivating land
Supporting sustainable development of small island developing countries
Developing community leisure activities
Developing gracious leisure space
Developing effective home management
Developing available community resources
Developing community teaching faculty
Developing socio-physical community structures
Developing community management scheme
Developing grassroots leadership network
Developing external trades
Developing expanded political context
Developing community leadership
Developing leadership
Developing new social institutions
Improving existing communities
Developing agriculture
Developing economically and socially
Developing political systems
Reducing vulnerability of arid developing countries
Removing trade barriers against developing countries
Supporting developing countries
Using underdevelopment
Minimizing disadvantages of improved food production in developing countries
Improving food production in developing countries
Providing export incentives for developing countries products
Reducing disparities among developing countries
Reducing disparity between industrialized and developing countries
Balancing exports and imports of land-locked developing countries
Unbalancing exports and imports of land-locked developing countries
Improving public debt relief for developing countries
Industrializing developing countries
Improving capacity of developing countries to organize
Preserving social inequality
Stabilizing shifting agriculture
Providing sufficient development
Abstaining from development
Providing sufficient formal education in developing countries
Providing sufficient integration of transport systems among neighbouring developing countries
Limiting exchange of skills among developing countries
Increasing exchange of skills among developing countries
Exposing effective negative loans from development banks to developing countries
Developing democracy
Establishing new industries
Problem Type:
A: Abstract Fundamental Problems
Date of last update
11.05.2000 – 00:00 CEST