Radio and television censorship may be achieved by direct or indirect government control. For example, in the UK the BBC Board of Governors is appointed by the government; elsewhere there may be refusal to renew or grant licences to commercial or semi-commercial companies. Broadcasting may also be censored by public protest, by commercialization (where a commercial firm pays for a particular programme or will not place advertising if programmes are not to its liking), and by editors and producers. Particular areas of censorship are news and political programmes, and also those of sociological interest. Restrictions are made on obscenity and profanity. Broadcasting censorship may lead to cultural stagnation, conformism and apathy. It may also lead to ignorance and indoctrination through lack of information.
An unusual kind of television censorship follows the apartheid system in South Africa: SA Broadcasting Corporation's channel is predominantly intended for whites; channels such as Bophuthatswana TV are for blacks. From January 1995 music stations in France will be obliged by law to play French-language songs at least 40% of the time.