The general lack of indigenous leadership in the initial stages of the industrialization process may be due in part to the very newness of the factory system and its various concomitants. In addition to such initial difficulties there may be major impediments rooted in the social structure itself, in the rigidity of the social system and in the values a particular society attaches to different kinds of economic activity. In pre-industrial societies, the greater part of the population usually consists of peasant groups whose traditional outlook, closed family economy and general cultural background are not the best training ground for industrial leadership. The source of potential industrial leadership, therefore, may be limited to the numerically small upper classes. Even in this group, however, entrepreneurial ability is not purely a function of the education and wealth that its members may have, for in most cases their standards of values and ways of life do not dispose them towards industrial undertakings.