[Land-locked countries] In many land-locked developing countries and their coastal neighbours, freight forwarding services are inefficient, due not only to lack of adequate transport but also to the want of expertise and skills. This contributes to the serious delays in moving transit cargo to and from the ports.
[Developing countries] Traditional systems in tribal villages to not allow for the stockpiling and distribution of goods. Supplies brought in individually stretch supply lines to unreliable lengths and increase the transportation costs to the individual buyer. Evidently there can only be a narrow range and selection of goods brought in this way, so the market is small and expansion limited. Goods are even more expensive when there are high interest and short term payment arrangements. Cash flow constantly away from the village and an inadequate supply system, results in villages paying more for less with irregular supply and unreliable service.