Animal diseases may be transmitted by infected water either when used for drinking or when deposited on pastureland during the wet season. Water-borne diseases may be parasitic, viral or bacterial. Parasites such as liver flukes depend on water for the maturation of their larvae. The larvae may be ingested through water intake. Incidence of coccidiosis is higher in wet and marshland areas in the natural state when pastureland may become contaminated from the integration of infected faeces into the soil. Drinking water may become infected by diseased animals, particularly domestic animals kept in close and insanitary conditions. Foot-and-mouth disease as an airborne infection has a higher incidence during wet weather, since this is the means by which the virus descends to ground level. Anthrax as a soil-borne disease may also be water-borne, infected from the soil, and carried by surface drainage.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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