Water courses and ground water are contaminated chemically primarily due to industrial and agricultural activities. Industrial effluents and toxic chemical residues that are buried and which seep into water tables are the chief sources of contamination. Agricultural activities, mainly involving pesticides, herbicides and chemical fertilizers, are the cause of contaminated water run-offs brought about by rain or irrigation. Rivers and estuaries from which drinking water is drawn and purified have also to contend with contamination from boat and ship emissions of oil and petrol. Open areas of water may also, on occasion, be contaminated by precipitated particles in rainfall.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.