Falsity may exist in the perceiver or in the object perceived. In the perceiver it arises from errors in sense interpretation, unconscious expectation and bias, and, ultimately, incorrect or partial reasoning to a conclusion. Objects, human activities and events and the like may bear false appearances, by intent or by accident.
In diplomacy falsity may be the instrument to gain advantage: for example, the pro-Hitler non-aggression pact. In politics falsity may be employed in promises or in allegations concerning opponents. Optical illusions illustrate falsity in sense data. Supernatural phenomena, sightings of monsters and unidentified flying objects may be false perceptions. Overly-optimistic and overly-pessimistic outlooks falsify probable outcome anticipations. Polite behaviour may be an inculcation to practise falsification. Several crimes involve falsity: impersonation, signature forgery, hoaxes, currency counterfeiting, art forgery, 'confidence rackets', fraudulent claims for products, false arrest and, in some jurisdictions, transvestism.
The wise are pleased when they discover falsehood.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.