Personality disorders

Experimental visualization of narrower problems
Other Names:
Impairments of temperament
A personality disorder exists when the habits that constitute a personality are inflexible and damaging. Inflexible and maladaptive personality traits can cause significant impairment in social or occupational functioning or subjective distress.
DSM-III Personality Disorders
A. Odd or eccentric
1. Paranoid: tense, guarded, suspicious, bears grudges.

2. Schizoid: socially isolated, with restricted emotional expression.

3. Schizotypal: disconcerting peculiarities of thought, appearance, and behaviour; emotionally detached and isolated.

B. Dramatic, emotional, or erratic

4. Antisocial: manipulative, exploitative, pervasively dishonest and disloyal; lacks guilt, habitually breaks social rules, often has a criminal record.

5. Borderline: intolerant of solitude, intense and unstable moods and personal relationships, suicide attempts, chronic boredom or anger, drug and alcohol abuse.

6. Histrionic: seductive, demands constant reassurance and immediate gratification; rapidly changing, shallow emotional expression.

7. Narcissistic: self-absorbed, fantasies of perfection, preoccupied with envy, demands adulation, expects special treatment.

C. Anxious or fearful

8. Avoidant: reticent, easily hurt or embarrassed, few close friends, afraid to abandon routines.

9. Dependent: allows others to make decisions, needs constant advice and reassurance, fears abandonment.

10. Obsessive-compulsive: stiff, perfectionistic, overconscientious, indecisive, preoccupied with details, unable to express affection.

11. Passive-aggressive: resents demands and suggestions, procrastinates, sulks, avoids obligations by 'forgetting' or deliberate inefficiency.

Added in 1987 (DSM-III-R)

12. Sadistic: takes pleasure in cruelty, fascinated by violence, controls others by intimidation and humiliation.

13. Self-defeating: feels exploited and mistreated; creates situations bound to cause disappointment and rejection; excessive unsolicited self-sacrifice, rejects help and opportunities for pleasure.

Temper tantrums
Problem Type:
D: Detailed problems
Date of last update
22.04.2000 – 00:00 CEST