Speech defects Dysphasia Twangs Cluttering Lalling Impairments of the voice Impairments of articulation Impairments of the functions of voice production structures
Mutism, autism and dysphasia are among the severe impairments of communication abilities. Specific impairment of voice production may be due to laryngeal deficiency, artificial larynx, laryngeal palsy or from deficiencies in other speech organs. The indistinct speech that results may be characterized by drawling, mumbling, slurring, [etc]. Impairments of voice function include absent or irregular voice modulation, pitch, intonation or volume; and harsh or other deficient qualities. Impaired speech forms includes stuttering, stammering, and similar disorders.
As is generally known, speech disorders may have psychological causes. Thus, just as there are normal behavioural and speech ranges, atypical speech may be viewed as a disorder. In this class fall excessively copious and rapid speech, unusual speech patterning, phonation and resonation. This class of speech disorders may also include distorted grammar, lack of logical connection, sudden irrelevancies, interminable digressions, and answering off the point. Non-social speech, in this category, is talking, muttering or whispering out loud; and impaired conversation is exhibited by simultaneous talking or talking out of turn. Impaired speech content includes idiosyncratic uses of phrases and terms, neologisms, excessively recurrent punning, rhyming, joking or impaired humour, singing and irrelevant location.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.