The foetus and the breast-fed baby can become the victim of a mother who smokes. Indeed, smoking has immediately bad effects on pregnant women, their foetuses, and on nursing mothers. It increases the risk of miscarriage and stillbirth and may result in low birth-weight and backward babies. If the mother smokes during pregnancy, the new-born child weighs an average 200-250g less than it would if she did not smoke. In terms of statistical risks, it seems that the probability of a woman who smokes five to ten cigarettes a day will give birth to a child weighing less than 2.5kg is 50% more than that for a woman who does not smoke. The corresponding increase in probability for a woman who smokes twenty or more cigarettes a day is 130%. Both the quality and quantity of breast milk may be reduced if the mother smokes, the risk of sudden infant death syndrome is increased, and various aspects of the child's physical growth, intellectual and emotional development and behaviour may be affected.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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