The urinary bladder is subject to anomalies, obstructions, inflammations, calculi, fistulae, and tumours.
Bladder dysfunction can result in either symptomatic or "silent" problems. Examples of symptomatic problems are urinary incontinence, urinary frequency, pain, difficulty voiding, and urinary retention. The silent problems can cause very significant damage to the kidneys and ureters and to the bladder itself. The diverse entities of urinary incontinence, painful bladder (including interstitial cystitis), intractable urinary frequency and urgency, total inability to urinate (urinary retention), abnormal voiding caused by neurologic disease, and abnormal kidney and ureteral function are all common examples of the results of bladder dysfunction.
In the USA, over 4 million people experience bladder disorders.