Animals continue to be subjected to avoidable stress during the stages of slaughter for two reasons: either unsuccessful attempts are made to institute modern scientific slaughter, or no attempt at modernization is made and the traditional unscientific methods are allowed to continue.
Of the approximately 1,000 million animals slaughtered each year in the world, at least 500 million (and possibly 600 million) continue to be killed without effective steps being taken to render them insensitive prior to being cut and bled. Of the 597 million killed on which data are available, the situation is as follows: Europe (humanely 140 million, inhumanely 60 million); Asia (humanely 3 million, inhumanely 77 million); Latin America (humanely 4 million, inhumanely 70 million); North America (humanely 138 million, inhumanely 15 million); Australasia (humanely 14 million, inhumanely 76 million). Of the approximately 317 million slaughtered in other regions on which less adequate data is available, the situation is estimated to be as follows: USSR (humanely 60 million, inhumanely 40 million); China (humanely 50 million, inhumanely 50 million); eastern Europe (humanely 44 million, inhumanely 40 million); Africa (humanely 10 million, inhumanely 23 million).
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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