Marxism is a socialist theory of dialectical human progress culminating in proletarian revolution and the abolition of class divisions and exploitation through the ownership of property. Because of the inconsistency of Marxist predictions with actual events, the doctrine and its exponents are left open to the accusation of hypocrisy either from contrary ideologies or from within Marxist ranks. The movement has been divided for a long time, originally into social democrats and communists (an element of this still exists among Western intellectuals in non-socialist countries) and currently among communist factions in socialist countries. Marxism may be elitist, tending towards bureaucracy, dictatorship and militarism. Alternatively it may tend towards anarchism, social disintegration and violence. Marxism poses a threat to capitalism. It causes international conflict and internal conflict and repression within non-socialist countries. Divisions in Marxist ideology cause repression in socialist countries and may cause foreign intervention (as in Czechoslovakia).
Marxism became a world wide phenomenon during the 20th century. Communist countries take their ideology from Marxist thought. Elsewhere, intellectuals and workers form communist and socialist movements or parties based on Marxist doctrine. High incidence of the latter is found in Italy and France. China, North Korea and Cuba are strongholds of Marxist beliefs. Lenin adopted an elitist and bureaucratic approach to Marxism reflected in pre-Glasnost USSR and the eastern European countries over which it formerly maintained a strict hold. Now Lenin's statue in Berlin is removed. Ideological schism occurs between the Russian and Chinese (and oriental) approach to Marxism. Trotskyite Marxism tends towards anarchy. Wars fought on ideological grounds between Marxism and capitalism include the Korean war, the Vietnam war and the war in Cambodia and Laos. Repression of Marxism occurs particularly in fascist or right-wing capitalist countries. Repression of Marxist deviation occurs within most communist countries.