The seas and oceans are a vital resource for human life yet conflicts abound regarding their use. There are national ownership claims to excessive offshore boundaries, for example, which is perhaps the fundamental issue, and which affects fishing rights, off-shore oil development and other sea-bed mineral exploitation as well as sea-lane rights of passage. There are issues of responsibility in the event of oil-well or tanker caused slicks, and issues of cooperation in regional marine management. Special problems exist regarding the legality of seabed mining and militarization of the ocean with mobile weapons. International ocean rescue and salvage laws require clarification.